Carnelian, red-orange chalcedony quartz
Carnelian variety of chalcedony quartz often used to make beads and gem carvings. It ranges in color from yellow-orange to rich, near reddish orange, to orange-brown, and varies from semi-opaque to translucent. Iron is the source of its color and so it can be easily heat treated, (even by the sun’s heat alone,) to darken red tones as the iron is oxidized. You should assume, unless informed otherwise, that any piece of carnelian has been enhanced in this way. Gem-quality sources include Brazil, Egypt, and Uruguay, but most commercial carnelian comes from India.
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